is the most famous Montenegrin grape variety which is also widely spread in Herzegovina, Dalmatia and Macedonia. Grape clusters are big, egg shaped with long stem. The berries are big, round and the skin is of a rich dark blue color, thin and smooth. An average grape cluster weights 150 - 350 grams. This variety has good and regular fertilization with the amount of sugar 22 – 25 % and 6 g/l of acidity, so the wine has 12 – 13, 5 % alcohol and it has a very pleasant taste. Young wines made of the vranac variety of grapes are tart, with intensive aroma, almost wild. They are tamed by aging in wooden barrels, barrique or other types. Well aged vranac wines are strong and full bodied. Vintages rich in acids may produce wines suitable for years long aging.
Other red grape varieties
is a French grape variety widely spread in the world thanks to its good fertilization and resistance to low winter temperatures and fungal diseases. It is of medium density, the cuttings are of medium thickness, internodes are long and brownish red. The flower is hermaphrodite, the grape cluster is medium size and pyramidal. Wines are rich in alcohol, total acidity, and ruby red color with the raspberry aroma.
is also a widely spread French wine variety cultivated in Herzegovina since recently. It gives equal yield when grown on both deep and dry soils and it does not require special pruning. It is highly resistant to fungal diseases. This variety gives good and regular yieldwith the must sugar up to 23% and 7 g/lit total acidity. Wine has a ruby red color; it has full taste with easily recognizable bouquet which is highly appreciated by the wine lovers.
Kambuša (Alicante Bouschet)
is grown in Herzegovina although in smaller amounts. It has regular and good fertilization and yielding. It is resistant to fungal deceases. Berries are thick-skinned, firm and full of sugar. It ripens late. Depending on the area, total alcohol is 12 do 13.5 vol. %, it is mildly bitter and total acidity varies between 4, 5 - 5, 5 g/l and the total dry extract is very high (up to 26 g/l). Plavac is a typical southern wine, bitter and dry; purple-dark red color with bluish reflexes and the aroma is very discreet and present. Throughout the centuries, this wine was equally drunk by the workers and royalty.
Other white grape varieties
is a white grape grape variety. It originated in the Champagne, Burgundy. It is resistant to powdery mildew, it should be deeply pruned. Due to its regular fertility and the quality of wine from its grapes, it has been spread all over the world. Its berries are pleasantly bitter and full of juice but have to be vinified immediately after being picked. Chardonnay wines are important component of many sparkling wines.
is a white wine grape variety. It has normal and regular pollination and fertilization. It ripens in the first half of September and the average weight of a grape cluster is about 130 grams. This variety is grown in warmer areas and it is resistant to grape downy mildew and fungal spores – grapevine diseases. With regular narrow pruning it gives good yields. It can grow on weak soil and hardly accessible terrain due to its resistance. Bena's musk contains 16 – 22 % of sugar and 4, 9 - 7, 8 percent of total acidity. The wine from pure Bena is of medium quality because it contains less alcohol than Žilavka. Bena has the sweetness of Krkošija and Žilavka but due to the greater level of acidity it is a good supplement to Žilavka – in smaller amounts. It can be eaten raw.
ripens in the third quarter of the year, same as Žilavka but it has irregular fertilization due to the anomalies in the flower structure. A grape cluster weights from 100 to 200 grams. Narrow pruning suits it and it likes permeable soil with enough moisture, such as ultisols (red soil) around Brotnjo, Dubrava and Ljubuški. It does not like dry and infertile soil. On fertile vineyard soil it produces good quality grapes with a high level of sugar and acidity so it could be said that this variety is very generous with the amount of sugar which percentage is similar to the one in Žilavka but the acidity level is a bit higher.Krkošija gives greenish-yellow wine with good quality extract, without aroma and a nuance of acerbity. In a pure form it is not a good quality vine but mixing it with Žilavka could improve its quality and that is its utmost value.
is a white wine grape variety named after Smederevo, a town in Serbia. It was introduced to Herzegovina during 70’s and 80’s thanks to its good fertilization and high fermentation. Due to the low level of alcohol (10 - 11%), bitterness and hay yellow colour it is among the easily reachable table wines on the market.